Dickinson 7

[Page 124] APPENDIX I THE PYNSON BALLAD THE ballad given below occurs in what is apparently a unique copy now included in book 1254 of the Pepys Library, Magdalene College, Cambridge.1 After claiming that the chapel was founded in 1061, it later remarks that pilgrimages to it had gone on ‘four hundreth yere and more’, thus suggesting that the ballad was composed in the late fifteenth century, a date likely enough on other grounds. Its original printer was Richard Pynson and the fact that he should have included it among his works is a further hint of the popularity of the shrine in early Tudor times. I am greatly indebted to Mr G. D. Painter, Assistant Keeper in the Department of Printed Books in the British Museum, for the following note on the original edition of the ballad: “Duff, XV Century English Books (p. 131) and Printers of Westminster and London (p. 64), puts it among the other undated books of 1496. As far as one can surmise without seeing the book his reasons may have been as follows: (1) The book is in Pynson’s type 6 and 7. The first dated use of 6 is 1496, of 7 January 1495. Both, however, were used together till 1500 and later, so this evidence only suggests that the book is of 1496 or later. (2) The book contains Pynson’s device no. 3 (McKerrow, Printers’ Devices 1485-1640, no. 9, plates 9a, 9b). The first dated use was 1497 but it occurs in many of the undated group assigned to 1496. An indentation in the bottom border occurs at latest from May 1499 . . . . 1 Original spelling has been kept, but capital letters and punctuation have been modernized. [Page 125] THE PYNSON BALLAD I should say that the accepted date is c. 1496, while the possible range would be from early 1496 to early 1499.” 1 Of this chapell se here the fundacyon, Bylded the yere of Crystes incarnacyon, A thousande complete syxty and one, The tyme of sent Edward kyng of this region. 2 Beholde and se, ye goostlya folkes all, Which to this place haue deuocyon Whan ye to Our Lady askynge socoure call Desyrynge here hir helpe in your trybulacyon; Of this hir chapell ye may se the fundacyon, If ye wyll this tableb ouerseec and rede Howe by myracle it was founded in dede. 3 A noble wydowe, somtyme lady of this towne, Called Rychold, in lyuynge full vertuous, Desyred of Oure Lady a petycyowne Hir to honoure with some werke bountyous, This blyssed Virgin and Lady most gracyous Graunted hir petycyon, as I shall after tell, Unto hir worshyp to edefye this chapell. 4 In spyryte Our Lady to Nazareth hir led And shewed hir the place where Gabryel hir grette:d ‘Lo doughter, consyder’ to hir Oure Lady sayde, ‘Of thys place take thou suerly the mette,e Another lyke thys at Walsyngham thou sette Unto my laude and synguler honoure; All that me sechef there shall fynde socoure, a Devout, spiritual. Cf. stanza 16, ll. 4, 6. b Tablet. c Turn over. d Greeted. e Measurement. f Beseech. [Page 126] APPENDIX I 5 Where shall be hadde in a memoryall The great ioy of my salutacyon, Fyrste of my ioyes grounde and orygynall Rote a of mankyndes gracyous redempcyon, Whan Gabryell gaue to me relacyonb To be a moder through humylyte, And goddys sonne conceyue in virgynyte.’ 6 This visyon shewed thryse to this deuout woman, In mynde well she marked both length and brede; She was full gladde and thanked Oure Lady than Of hir great grace neuer destytute in nede. This forsayd hous in haste she thought to spede,c alled to hir artyfycers full wyse, This chapell to forge as Our Lady dyd deuyse. 7 All this, a medewed wete with dropes celestyall And with syluer dewe sent from hyee adowne Excepte tho tweyne places chosen aboue all Where neyther moystef ne dewe myght be fowne,g This was the fyrste pronostycacyowne Howe this our newe Nazareth here shold stande, Bylded lyke the fyrste in the Holy Lande. 8 Whan it was al fourmed, than had she great doute Where it shold be sette and in what maner place,h In as moche as tweyne places were founde oute Tokened with myracle of Our Ladyes grace; That is to say, tweyne quadrates of egalli space As the fleesj of Gedeon in the wete beynge drye, Assygned by myracle of holy mayde Marye. a Root, cause. b Announced to me. c Accomplish successfully. d Meadow. e High. f Moisture. g Found. h What kind of place. i Equal. j Fleece. [Page 127] THE PYNSON BALLAD 9 The wydowe thought it most lykly of congruence This house on the fyrste soyle to bylde and arere.a Of this who lysteb to have experyence,c A chapell of saynt Laurence standeth nowe there Faste by tweyne wells, experyence doth thus lere,d There she thought to have set this chapell Which was begonne by Our Ladyes counsell. 10 The carpenters began to set the fundamente This heuenly house to arere up on hye, But cone their werkes shewed inconuenyente,e For no pece with oder wolde afire with geometrye; Than were they all sory and full of agonye That they could nat kenf neyther mesure ne marke To ioyne togyder their owne proper werke. 11 They went to reste and layde all thynge on syde, As they ong their maystresse had a commaundement; She thought Our Lady, that fyrste was hir gyde, Wold conueyh this worke aftyr hir owne entent; Hir meynyi to reste as for that nyght she sente And prayed Our Lady with deuoute exclamacyon, As she had begonne, to perfourme that habytacion. 12 All nyghte the wydowe permayningej in this prayer, Oure blyssed Lady with heuenly mynystrys,k Hirsylfe beynge here chyef artyfycer, Areryd this sayd house with aungellys haudys,l And not only reyrd it but set it there it is, That is, two hundred fote and more in dystaunce From the fyrste place bokes make remembraunce.m a To erect. b Wish. c To make inquiry. d Teach. e Troublesome. f Understand. g From. h Manage. i Household. j Persisting. k Services, aids. l Sic, hands. m Mention. [Page 128] APPENDIX I 13 Erly whan the artyfycers cam to their trauaylea Of this sayd chapell to have made an ende, They founde eche parte conioyned sauns fayleb Better than they coude conceyue it in mynde; Thus eche man home agayne dyd wynde, And this holy matrone thanked Oure Lady Of hir great grace shewyd here specyally. 14 And sythc here Our Lady hath shewyd many myracle Innumerable, nowe here for to expresse To suche as visyte thys hir habytacle,d Euer lyke newe to them that call hir in dystresse; Four hundreth yere and more, the cronacle toe witnes, Hath endured this notable pylgrymage, Where grace is dayly shewyd to men of euery age. 15 Many sekef ben here cured by Our Ladyes myghte, Dede g agayne reuyued, of this is no dought, Lame made hole and blynde restored to syghte, Maryners vexed with tempest safe to porte brought, Defe, wounded and lunatyke that hyder haue sought, And also lepers here recouered haue be By Oure Ladyes grace ofh their infyrmyte. 16 Folke that of fendys haue had acombrauncei And of wycked spyrytes also moche vexacyon Have here be delyuered from euery such chaunce, And soules greatly vexed with gostely temptation, Lo, here the chyef solace agaynst all tribulacyon To all that be seke, bodely or goostly, Callynge to Oure Lady deuoutly. a Work. b Without mistake. c Since. d Abode; canopied niche. e As, f Sick. g Dead. h From. i Have been oppressed by fiends. [Page 129] THE PYNSON BALLAD 17 Therfore euery pylgryme gyue your attendauncea Our Lady here to serue with humble affeccyon, Your sylfe ye applye to do hir plesaunce, Remembrynge the great ioye of hir Annunciation, Therwyth conceyuyngeb this bryef compylacyon, Though it halte in meter and eloquence, It is here wryten to do hyr reuerence. 18 All lettrede that wyll have more intellygence Of the fundacyon of this chapell here, If you wyll aske kokesd shall you encencee More clerely to understande this forsayd matere; To you shall declare the cronyclere All cyrcumstaunce by a noble processef Howe olde cronyclers of thys bere wytnesse. 19 O Englonde, great cause thou haste glad for to be, Compared to the londe of promyssyon,g Thou atteynest myh grace to stande in that degre Through this gloryous Ladyes supportacyon, To be called in euery realme and regyon The holy lande, Oure Ladyes dowre; Thus arte thou named of olde antyquyte. 20 And this is the cause, as it apereth by lyklynesse, In the is beldedi newe Nazareth, a mancyon To the honoure of the heuenly empresse And of hir moste gloryous salutacyon, Chyef pryncypyll and grounde of oure saluacyon, Whan Gabryell sayd at olde Nazereth ‘Aue’, This ioy here dayly remembred for to be. a Attention, care. b Taking notice of. c Literate (persons). d Sic. Query ‘folks’. [In his own copy, Dickinson has amended this to bokes.] e Insense, enlighten. f Narrative. g Promise. h Sic. Query ‘by’. i In thee is built. [Page 130] APPENDIX I 21 O gracyous Lady, glory of Jerusalem, Cypresse of Syon and Ioye of Israel, Rose of Jeryco and Sterre of Bethleem, O gloryous Lady, our askynge nat repell, In mercy all wymen euer thou doste excell, Therfore, blissed Lady, graunt thou thy great grace To all that thea deuoutly visyte in this place, Amen. a Thee. [Page 131] APPENDIX II PRIORS OF WALSINGHAM THE cartulary of the priory1 contains a list of the priors from the time of the foundation down to the time of Prior Hugh Wells. No dates are noted, but the length of each priorate is given except in the case of the fifth and sixth priors, where the combined length of their periods of office is given (presumably because the writer did not know the year in which the second of them succeeded). A later hand has added the priorates of John Farewell and William Lowthe and the period of office of Thomas Hunt. The list has been used rather uncritically in V.C.H. Norfolk,2 and is printed in translation by Harrod.3 If Walsingham priory had been of royal foundation it would have been possible to check most, if not all, of the priorates from government records. As it is, the evidence from elsewhere is less full but is amply sufficient to show that the list is completely reliable except at a few points. The priorates from 1313 onwards can almost all be exactly determined from the evidence of the medieval bishops’ registers and one or two subsidiary sources (see list below), and it is pleasing to find that in almost every case the figures in the cartulary list are found to be exact. This enables us to fill in with some confidence the dates of the earlier priors where little other evidence survives. The fairly numerous datable references to priors of Walsingham found by the writer in other sources all 1 See fo. 157v. 2 II, 131. 3 Gleanings among the Castles and Convents of Norfolk. , 181-2. [Page 132] 9-2 APPENDIX II fit in with the evidence of the cartulary list, giving further proof that it is substantially accurate. The list enables us to fix the foundation of the priory at 1153, which again fits in with the evidence provided elsewhere.l The entry for Thomas the twelfth prior does not agree with the excellent pattern. His priorate is given as ten years, though the bishops’ registers show quite clearly that it lasted from 1349 until 1374.2 The episcopal evidence is of first class quality and is borne out by the later entries, so one is bound to conclude that for some unknown reason the writer of the list went astray on this point. Thomas was succeeded by Prior Snoring who is said to have ruled for twenty-seven years. He probably succeeded in 1374 and we know that his removal was ordered in 1400. It may well have taken some time to effect this, so it is not impossible that he was still in office in the following year. If we do not assume this we must hold that this entry is a year out. There is a similar minor problem concerning Snoring’s successor Hugh Wells, whose priorate is said to have lasted thirty-five years. His successor is known to have been elected in 1437, so if the cartulary is right Hugh took office in 1402, a year after we should have expected. But this lost year is not inexplicable; it is just possible that there were two longish vacancies before Hugh and his successor were elected. Thomas Hunt’s dates (1437–74) fit in exactly with all the evidence, as do those of his successor John Farewell, whose date of death is known precisely. The length of the priorate of William Lowthe does not note his time as prior of West Acre. The name of the last prior of Walsingham, Richard Vowell, is not given in the cartulary list, but can be supplied from other sources.3 1 Above, 4-7. 2 Below, 133. 3 Below, 134. [Page 133] PRIORS OF WALSINGHAM Appended to the cartulary list are two notes, one right and the other wrong. The earlier one declares that the Statute of Quia Emptores of 1290 was passed in the time of Prior Peter who died well before 1270; what lies behind this error is unknown. The later note records Prior Snoring’s attempt to secure the conversion of the priory into an abbey; as we have seen, it fits in perfectly with what is known hereon from other sources. Cott. MS. Nero E. VII fo. 157v Data priorum istius ecclesie Ab ingressu canonicorum in ecclesiam de Walsyngham usque ad obitum Radulphi prioris primi 1153–73 fluxerunt anni xx 1173–86 deinde Ricardus prior secundus vixit xliij annis 1186–1207 Alexander prior tercius vixit xxj annis 1207–54 Willelmus prior quartus vixit xlvij annis 1254–70 *Petrus prior quintus vixit et Alanus prior sextus xvj annis 1270–9 Willelmus prior septimus ix annis 1279–99 Johannes prior octavus xx annis 1299–1313 Philippus prior nonus xiiij annis 1313 1–35 2 Walterus prior decimus xxij annis 13352–493 Symon prior undecimus xiiij annis 13493–744 Thomas duodecimus x annis 13744–?14015 †Johannes Snoryng tercius decimus xxvij annis ? 1402–376 Hugo Well xv7 xxxv annis 1 In Norwich Epis. Reg. he is named de Wyghtone; I, fo. 55r. 2 Ibid. II fo. 75r. Simon de Wyveton admitted on the death of Walter de Wygtone, the last prior. 3 Ibid. IV, fo. 100. Thomas de Clare confirmed as prior after an irregular election following the death of the last prior Simon Steyn. 4 Ibid. VI, fo. 26v/27r. John de Noryngg. [sic] confirmed as prior, following the resignation of Thomas de Clare. 5 Above, 32. 6 As we have seen, the date of Hugh Wells’s installation as prior has not been located but on 8 Oct. 1437, his successor was elected ‘in capella Sancti Thome infra precinctum prioratus’ (Ibid. X, fo. 11r) on the death of Hugh. 7 ‘quartus dccimus’ deleted. [Page 134] APPENDIX II 1437 1–74 Thomas Hunt prior xvj2 (xxxvij annis) 1474 3–1503 4 Johannes Farewell prior xvijus (vixit xxix annis) 1504 5—14 6 Willelmus Lowth prior (xviijus vixit in priore x annis et resignauit pro pensione et postea prior cle Westacr. exiuit, Deus cum eo7 [15148–389 Richard Vowell] MARGINAL NOTES * Md quod Anno vjto Petri prioris factum fuit statutum Quia emptores terrarum. † Memorandum quod Johannes Herford gessit officium et nomen prioris predicto domino Johanne Snoryng existente Rome in placito pro abbathia de prioratu fienda; sed dominus Henricus Spenser [?] episcopus Norwicensis cum maiori parte conuentus huic officium[?] restituit et sic totus labor predicti domini Johannis, licet multum sumptuosus erat, erat cassatus. 1 See p. 133, n. 6. 2 End of original hand. 3 Ibid. XII, fo. 41r. John Farewell was elected prior on the death of Thomas Hunt, 24 October 1474. 4 C.P.R. (1494—1509), 332. 5 The date of his election is not certain but was after the date of the licence to elect 15 Sept. 1503 and before July 1504 (above, 51). 6 Above, 53. 7 End of cartulary list. 8 Below, 140. He is evidently the Richard Vowell prior of Lees, who resigned at this time (V.C.H. Essex, II, 156), but may have been a canon of Walsingham originally. He is termed M[agister] (below, 140) and preached a Latin sermon at the Augustinian General Chapter of 1518 (L. and P. II. (2), Appendix 48). 9 Above, 66. APPENDIX III CANONS OF WALSINGHAM THE following list from the cartulary is of some interest and is of a type not often found. It seems to consist of the names of canons who tried their vocation at Walsingham priory from the late fourteenth to the early sixteenth century. ‘Postea dimissus’ indicates that the canon in question left before taking final vows, ‘Jubileus’ that he had been professed fifty years. Various references to the names are found elsewhere but it has not been thought necessary to specify these. A rapid comparison of this list with one of canons of Walsingham ordained by the bishops of Norwich (kindly furnished by Rev. J. F. Williams) does not make it quite clear if the cartulary list is complete. This question is much complicated by the fact that canons seem to have assumed the name of a place (presumably that from which they originated) instead of their surname, the former being used in the cartulary almost exclusively, whilst the latter occurs in the registers. The later entries and some of the additional entries are added in an early sixteenth-century hand. A slightly inaccurate translation of the list was given by Harrod.1 1 Gleanings among the Castles and Convents of Norfolk. , 182-8. APPENDIX III B.M. NERO E. vii fos. 173v—174r fo. 173va Memorandum quod anno domini millesimo ccclxxxiiijto [1374—?1401] Johannes Snoryng fuit prior de Walsygham [sic] xiijus Johannes Ieryngham alias Waryn fuit supprior et principalis adiutor circa constructiones ecclesie nostre. Johannes Barsham canonicus Ricardus Burnham canonicus Willelmus Barsham canonicus Thomas Bedyngham canonicus Nicholas Barsham canonicus Simon Warham canonicus Thomas Walsham canonicus Thomas Lynne qui fieri fecit les Clowse et(?) minibus propriis adiuuabat artifices summi altaris [1389—?] Johannes de Herford bonus medicus et prior xiiijus Johannes Peynton canonicus Johannes Yermouth supprior qui fecit depingi tectum corporis ecclesie nostre et capellam sancti Nicholai cum tabula ibidem et murum australem gardini australis nomine Jubilei sui, cuius anima in pace quiescat. Johannes Bakton canonicus Johannes Elyngham canonicus Ricardus Wyghton canonicus Thomas Fornsete canonicus apostatavit ratione furti quod commisit et postea capellanus honoris effectus est. Thomas Gatele supprior qui in puericia sua submerses fuit in fonte beate marie et mortuus sed per miraculum beate marie ad vitam est restitutus. [?1402—37] Hugo Welles prior xvmus per cuius laborem manerium de Eggem. acquisitum fuit. Qui eciam fieri fecit magnam campanam et plura alia memoria digna. Thomas Parham canonicus postea dimissus [Page 137] CANONS OF WALSINGHAM Walterus Ebon. canonicus Thomas Hilgrave canonicus deo devotus qui pluros [sic] libros scripsit. Willelmus Salle canonicus qui de bonis cuiusdam de Buria plura expendit circa edificationem cancelle ecclesie parochialis de Walsyngham. Willelmus Bale canonicus Willelmus Bacheler supprior Johannes Derham canonicus et postea prior de Cokesford Nicholas Agges canonicus Johannes Houghton canonicus qui obiit in pulpito in ecclesia omnium sanctorum de Walsingham magna. Thomas Myldenhale canonicus et postea vicarius de Bedyngham sed infra quindenam reuersus claustralis mortuus est Thomas Crakesheld alias Mason canonicus postea abbas de Creyke [1437—74] Thomas Hunte prior xvius Johannes Stanhowe canonicus postea abbas de Creyke Edwardus Stede canonicus postea dimissus Jacobus Baconesthorp canonicus Willelmus Chestany canonicus postea frater augustiniensis Willelmus Lynne canonicus qui fieri fecit librariam Johannes Leryngsete canonicus postea dimissus Johannes Walsham canonicus postea dimissus Alanus Itryngham canonicus postea dimissus Willelmus Derham canonicus Jubileus deo devotus Johannes Gresseham canonicus postea dimissus fo. 173v b Robertus Norwiche canonicus Ricardus Hylburghwurth canonicus alias Mundy Willelmus Paryse supprior et in iure canonico bacularius Willelmus Norman canonicus Thomas Houghton canonicus Johannes Walsyngham canonicus [Page 138] APPENDIX III Thomas Derham canonicus Ricardus Burnham alias Palle canonicus postea prior de Westacre Willelmus Sharyngton canonicus Willelmus Framyngham [sic] canonicus postea dimissus Johannes Aylesham canonicus Johannes Geyste canonicus Edmundus Waburn canonicus postea dimissus [1474–1503] Johannes Norwiche alias Farewell prior xvijus et in iure pontificio licentiatus Thomas Cranewurth canonicus Robertus Lyng canonicus Willelmus Walsyngham alias Sesely canonicus et in theologia bacularius Jacobus Thornhegge supprior devotissimus Johannes Aleyns canonicus Thomas Congham canonicus Henricus Myleham canonicus postea prior de Cokesford Thomas Byrcham canonicus postea dimissus Jacobus Hempstede canonicus Willelmus Fakenham canonicus Nicholas Lucas canonicus Ricardus Gottes canonicus et postea prior de Flyccham Alanus Aylesham canonicus Thomas Byrnyngham canonicus et in theologia bacularius Egidius Sharyngton canonicus in theologia bacularius et postea abbas de Creyke. Ricardus Holkham canonicus Ricardus Waterden canonicus Edwardus Warham alias Ponyon canonicus, postea sup-prior et Jubileus Ricardus Keteleston canonicus postea Rector de Sharyngton Johannes Grome canonicus Thomas Grymston canonicus postea prior Montegaudii deus cum eo [Page 139] CANONS OF WALSINGHAM Henricus Burnham alias Cosyne canonicus Nicholas Starman alias Sharyngton canonicus Thomas Bynham canonicus postea prior de Hempton Johannes Walsyngham alias Dyx canonicus Thomas Creyke alias Hoker postea dimissus, deus cum eo [1504–14] Willelmus Lowthe canonicus, postea prior xviij et postea prior de Westaker per resignacionem Willelmus Houghton canonicus Cristoforus Barsham alias Warde canonicus Robertus Parker alias Walsingham canonicus Thomas Styffekey canonicus qui obiit apud London Nicholas Ashehill canonicus Willelmus Norwyche canonicus Edmundus Feltwell canonicus1 Robertus Keteleston canonicus postea dimissus Ricardus Swyneshed canonicus generosus Thomas Lynne canonicus Dionisius Talbotte canonicus et non professus Thomas Walsyngham alias Lowthe canonicus postea prior de Thetford Willelmus Walsyngham alias Giles canonicus Ricardus Dokkyng alias Dolle canonicus Edmundus Rynglonde nuper rector de Mulverton in artibus magister fo. 174r Robertus Haale exiuit antequam erat professus Willelmus Betts diaconi simul professi Ricardus Howys alias Brysley et primi tempore Thomas Ryngsted Willelmi Lowth Johannes Lowe prioris anno domini Willelmus Raase 1505 in festo Johannes Pecke alias Aylsham sanctorum Tiburtii Johannes Watsune alias Clenchwardton et Valeriani post pasca 1 End of original hand. [Page 140] APPENDIX III Thomas Skeltune Colchest. postea dimissus Thomas Wellys Robertus Tylney alias Creke postea prior de Hempton Thomas Ypswych canonicus Professi fuerunt Willelmus Mileham canonicus postea canonicus de [blank] anno domini David Norwich canonicus Mo cccccxjo et Nicholaus Cambryg canonicus postea dimissus in festo sancte Nicholaus Mileham canonicus postea subprior Dorothee Robertus Salle canonicus po [sic] '' Johannes Walsyngham alias Betts canonicus obiit aput Cantibrigiam '' [1514–38] Anno domini 1514. M. Vowel prior xixus D. Robertus Wilsey Canonici Willelmus Gabbis '' Willelmus Rede alias Castylacr. canonici exiuit [sic.] sine licencia Simon Ovy postea dimissus Thomas Albane Johannes Harlowe Ricardus Garnet Johannes Quadryng Johannes Lampley. solus professus, In die sancti Augustini doctoris. anno mo quingentesimo xxiijo. Postea ad Cantabrigiam missus et in jure divino bacularius et post supprior electus est et post annum unum capellanus episcopi Gantuariensis est cum magno labore effectus. [Page 141] APPENDIX IV THE SLIPPER CHAPEL As is well known this is the name given to a small chapel at Houghton, about a mile and a half southwest of Little Walsingham. According to popular tradition this was the place where pilgrims to Walsingham took off their shoes before finishing their journey barefoot. As we have already noted, it is quite certain that some pilgrims to the shrine did visit it in this way, and the writer sees no objection to accepting the tradition as accurate, though it is to be admitted that we have no documentary evidence on the point. Indeed, so far next to nothing concerning the medieval history of the Slipper Chapel has been brought to light. The writer’s attempts to discover any reference to its origin have been completely unsuccessful; in this connexion it is greatly to be regretted that no cartulary is known to exist from the priory of Horsham St Faith which owned the church of Houghton. The only available index to the massive unpublished registers of the medieval bishops of Norwich has not yielded anything; but it is far from complete, and it is possible that fuller examination of these magnificent volumes may ultimately prove fruitful. It is, however, known that Walsingham Priory owned a little property in Houghton, that the present chapel stands on one of the principal routes to the shrine and was built at a time when the latter had acquired a national reputation. The architectural features of the chapel enable us to assign its erection to about the [Page 142] APPENDIX IV second quarter of the fourteenth century and it has been suggested that these features show similarities to the work at Ely Cathedral carried out by Alan of Walsingham (d. 1364). After the Reformation it was put to various secular uses from which it was rescued by Miss Charlotte Boyd in 1894, after which it underwent a necessary but rather severe restoration and passed to Roman Catholic ownership. The chapel was reopened and a shrine of Our Lady erected there in 1934, being reconsecrated four years later. [Page143 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE MAJOR original sources for the history of the priory of Walsingham are very scanty. The most important is the cartulary now in the British Museum (Cotton MS. Nero E vii) which has preserved the text of a great many charters of the house together with some interesting allied documents; it was drawn up about 1300 but has various later additions. Two folios of it are now in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (MS. Top. Nor-folk b. I). Almost all the original deeds of the priory seem to have vanished, though a few remain in the Bodleian, the British Museum and elsewhere. In the library of the Society of Antiquaries of London is an Account Roll of the cellarer of Walsingham for 1495–6 (MS. 622) and a few very trivial accounts are inserted in the Biblical volume from Walsingham, now MS. 22 in the Chester Beattie collection. I have not been able to examine more than cursorily the voluminous, unpublished registers of the medieval bishops of Norwich, but, to judge by the admittedly inadequate index of their contents, it seems unlikely that much important material for the history of Walsingham exists there. The only known episcopal visitations of Walsingham are those published by A. Jessop, Visitations of the Diocese of Norwich 1492–1532 (Camden Soc. 1888). Otherwise the history of the priory has largely to be pieced together from isolated references in the principal government records and chronicles of medieval England many of which are conveniently listed in H.M. Stationery Office, Sectional List no. 24, and in C. Gross, The Sources and Literature of English History. . . to about 1485 (1914). [Page 144] BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE The Paston Letters (ed. J. Gairdner, 4 vols., 1900) have some useful references to Walsingham. Erasmus’s Colloquy on Pilgrimage contains some valuable information about the shrine, but is to be used with caution; a translation of it with valuable notes was published by J. G. Nichols in 1875. Little has been written on the house in the last hundred years. The excavations of 1853–4 were described by Rev. J. Lee Warner in Archaeological Journal, XIII (1856), pp. 115–34, with which should be compared the account of Walsingham in H. Harrod’s Gleanings among the Castles and Convents of Norfolk. (Norwich, 1857), pp. 154–97. Of later accounts, in many ways the most useful, despite its polemical character, is that in E. Waterton’s Pietas Mariana Britannica (1879). The account of the priory in the Victoria County History of Norfolk, II, pp. 394–401, though not without use, is somewhat disappointing. top of page

J C Dickinson, The Shrine of our Lady of Walsingham, 1956